The story of British zoos

Содержание

Where the wild things are The British public have been visiting zoos since Elizabethan times. Driven by changing public attitudes, zoos have evolved from places simply of spectacle and scientific
Презентации » Биология » The story of British zoos

Слайды презентации

Слайд 1
The story of British zoos

Слайд 2
Where the wild things are The British public have been visiting zoos

since Elizabethan times. Driven by changing public attitudes, zoos have evolved from places simply of spectacle and scientific research to focus more on conservation and animal welfare.

since 
Elizabethan times. 
Driven by changing public attitudes, zoos have 
evolved from places simply of spectacle and 
scientific research to focus more on 
conservation and animal welfare.

Слайд 3
Royal beasts of Britain William the Conqueror established a

royal menagerie at Woodstock Manor near Oxford, including lions and camels. They were seen as symbols of power. This tradition was kept by his successors, who received exotic animals as gifts from foreign rulers. The animals provided entertainment to the king and his court. 11th century

royal 
menagerie at Woodstock 
Manor near Oxford, 
including lions and 
camels. They were seen 
as symbols of power. 
  
   This tradition was kept by 
his successors, who 
received exotic animals as 
gifts from foreign rulers. 
The animals provided 
entertainment to the king 
and his court. 11th century

Слайд 4
Lions go on show to the public The public

was first allowed to view the royal menagerie by Queen Elizabeth I. It had moved to the Tower of London, where visitors could pat the younger lions that played in the grounds. Free entry was given to anyone who brought a dead cat or dog to supplement the animals' diets.16th century

was first 
allowed to view the royal 
menagerie by Queen 
Elizabeth I. 
  
   It had moved to the 
Tower of London, where 
visitors could pat the 
younger lions that 
played in the grounds. 
Free entry was given to 
anyone who brought a 
dead cat or dog to 
supplement the animals' 
diets.16th century

Слайд 5
Commercial menagerie opens T o compete with the royal

menagerie, showman Gilbert Pidcock opened his own animal collection at the Exeter Exchange on the Strand in central London. Pidcock promoted his collection with eye- catching newspaper adverts. In one he assured the public his wild animals were "so well secured, that the most timorous may approach them in safety."1793


menagerie, showman 
Gilbert Pidcock opened his 
own animal collection at 
the Exeter Exchange on 
the Strand in central 
London.
   Pidcock promoted his 
collection with eye-
catching newspaper 
adverts. 
   In one he assured the 
public his wild animals 
were "so well secured, 
that the most timorous 
may approach them in 
safety."1793

Слайд 6
Wild animal shows travel around Britain One of the

first travelling menageries was founded by shoemaker George Wombwell, who realised people outside of London would pay to see wild animals. By 1839 his menagerie had 15 wagons of animals and a brass band. It received a visit from Queen Victoria at Windsor Fair in 1847. The menagerie inspired circuses to start using animals in their shows. Impresario George Sanger even invited Wombwell's lion trainer to perform at his circus.1 810

first travelling 
menageries was founded by 
shoemaker George 
Wombwell, who realised 
people outside of London 
would pay to see wild 
animals. 
  
   By 1839 his menagerie had 
15 wagons of animals and a 
brass band. It received a visit 
from Queen Victoria at 
Windsor Fair in 1847. The 
menagerie inspired circuses 
to start using animals in their 
shows. Impresario George 
Sanger even invited 
Wombwell's lion trainer to 
perform at his circus.1 810

Слайд 7
“ Two nights ago I saw the tigers sup at Exeter

‘Change... ” Lord Byron, 1813

‘Change... ”
                             Lord Byron, 1813

Слайд 8
Britain's first scientific zoo opens in London London Zoo

was founded for the study of animal species thanks to a growing Victorian interest in natural science. It acquired many animals when the Tower menagerie closed. The zoo was run by The Zoological Society of London (ZSL) in Regents Park and was only open to members. But its large collection of animals was costly to feed and maintain, so in 1847 it opened to the general public. Bristol Zoo, Edinburgh Zoological Gardens and Belle Vue Zoo near Manchester were also founded around this time.1 828

was founded for the 
study of animal species thanks 
to a growing Victorian interest in 
natural science. 
   
   It acquired many animals when 
the Tower menagerie closed. 
The zoo was run by The 
Zoological Society of London 
(ZSL) in Regents Park and was 
only open to members. But its 
large collection of animals was 
costly to feed and maintain, so 
in 1847 it opened to the general 
public. Bristol Zoo, Edinburgh 
Zoological Gardens and Belle 
Vue Zoo near Manchester were 
also founded around this time.1 828

Слайд 9
Darwin inspired by great apes in London Zoo It

was at London Zoo that Charles Darwin saw his first orangutan, called Jenny. He watched in amazement as she had a tantrum over a withheld apple. The naturalist observed that Jenny's intelligence and emotional expression was similar to a human child. He was profoundly moved by the experience and it infuenced his theory of evolution published 20 years later. 1 838

was at London Zoo that 
Charles Darwin saw his 
first orangutan, called 
Jenny. He watched in 
amazement as she had a 
tantrum over a withheld 
apple. 
  
   The naturalist observed 
that Jenny's intelligence 
and emotional expression 
was similar to a human 
child. He was profoundly 
moved by the experience 
and it infuenced his 
theory of evolution 
published 20 years later. 1 838

Слайд 10
“ Man in his arrogance thinks himself a great work... I

believe true to consider him created from animals. ” Charles Darwin, 1838


believe true to consider him created from animals. ”
                                Charles Darwin, 
1838

Слайд 11
Zoos acquire animal stars to attract visitors London Zoo

created a literal splash by exhibiting the first hippo in Europe since the time of the Roman Empire. The young animal, called Obaysch, weighed 37st and attracted up to 10,000 visitors a day. The zoo then bought Jumbo the elephant who became the new star of the collection. Bristol Zoo acquired Zebi the elephant who entertained visitors by eating straw hats. 1 850

created a literal 
splash by exhibiting the first 
hippo in Europe since the time 
of the Roman Empire.
  
   The young animal, called 
Obaysch, weighed 37st and 
attracted up to 10,000 visitors 
a day. The zoo then bought 
Jumbo the elephant who 
became the new star of the 
collection. Bristol Zoo acquired 
Zebi the elephant who 
entertained visitors by eating 
straw hats. 1 850

Слайд 12
The public buy tigers at Harrods The public fascination

with wild animals was such that Harrods opened an exotic pet store. Wealthy customers could buy animals from tiger cubs to alligators. Many of these creatures were given to zoos after they grew too big or unmanageable for their owners.1 917


with wild animals was 
such that Harrods 
opened an exotic pet 
store. 
  
   Wealthy customers 
could buy animals 
from tiger cubs to 
alligators. Many of 
these creatures were 
given to zoos after 
they grew too big or 
unmanageable for 
their owners.1 917

Слайд 13
Zoos move out of cities In the early 20th

century zoos were inspired by Carl Hagenbeck's zoo in Hamburg, which gave animals more space to roam. George Mottershead opened Chester Zoo in the Cheshire countryside where there was plenty of room to expand. In the same year ZSL opened the first wildlife park at Whipsnade, inspired by the vast nature reserves in Africa.1 931

century 
zoos were inspired by Carl 
Hagenbeck's zoo in 
Hamburg, which gave 
animals more space to 
roam. 
  
   George Mottershead opened 
Chester Zoo in the Cheshire 
countryside where there was 
plenty of room to expand. In 
the same year ZSL opened 
the first wildlife park at 
Whipsnade, inspired by the 
vast nature reserves in 
Africa.1 931

Слайд 14
“ It is so important... to try very hard to keep

the animals as near to their natural life as possible. ” George Mottershead, founder of Chester Zoo

the 
animals as near to their natural life as possible. ”
                    George Mottershead, founder of Chester Zoo

Слайд 15
Animals put down in World War Two When the

war broke out there were fears that wild animals could escape during air raids. Some zoos responded by putting down animals such as poisonous snakes and lions. Others moved their animals to safer places. Bristol’s big cats were evacuated to Chester. 1 939

war broke 
out there were fears 
that wild animals 
could escape during 
air raids.
  
   Some zoos responded 
by putting down 
animals such as 
poisonous snakes and 
lions. Others moved 
their animals to safer 
places. Bristol’s big 
cats were evacuated 
to Chester. 1 939

Слайд 16
David Attenborough presents his first nature programme Attenborough spent

three months in Sierra Leone looking for wild animals to put in zoos. The project was sponsored by the Zoological Society of London and featured in the TV programme ‘Zoo Quest.’ The public now saw what life was like for animals in the wild compared to captivity.1 954


three months in Sierra 
Leone looking for wild 
animals to put in zoos. 
  
   The project was 
sponsored by the 
Zoological Society of 
London and featured in 
the TV programme ‘Zoo 
Quest.’ The public now 
saw what life was like for 
animals in the wild 
compared to captivity.1 954

Слайд 17
“ My first natural history series... brought to the screen places

and animals that had never before been seen on television or in the cinema. ” David Attenborough

and animals that had never before 
been seen on television or in the cinema. ”
                                David Attenborough

Слайд 18
Pioneering zoo puts conservation first A new wildlife park

was set up in Jersey with the founding principle of preserving endangered species. Owner Gerald Durrell was deeply afected on his travels when he observed animals losing their habitat and struggling for survival in the wild. He made it his zoo’s mission to save species from extinction. 1 959

was 
set up in Jersey with the 
founding principle of 
preserving endangered 
species. 
  
   Owner Gerald Durrell 
was deeply afected on 
his travels when he 
observed animals losing 
their habitat and 
struggling for survival in 
the wild. He made it his 
zoo’s mission to save 
species from extinction. 1 959

Слайд 19
“ You cannot begin to preserve any species of animal unless

you preserve the habitat in which it dwells. ” Gerald Durrell, 1966

you preserve the habitat in which it dwells. ”
                                 Gerald Durrell, 
1966

Слайд 20
First safari park opens The first safari park allowed

visitors to drive past animals in the grounds of Longleat House in Wiltshire. It was set up by the former circus-owner Jimmy Chipperfield and the Marquess of Bath. This was the heyday of British zoos with a number of suburban zoos and safari-style parks opening their doors. 1 966

visitors to drive 
past animals in the 
grounds of Longleat 
House in Wiltshire. 
  
   It was set up by the 
former circus-owner 
Jimmy Chipperfield and 
the Marquess of Bath. 
This was the heyday of 
British zoos with a 
number of suburban 
zoos and safari-style 
parks opening their 
doors. 1 966

Слайд 21
Fighting for animal rights In the 1960s and 1970s

there was a growing unease about how animals were treated in captivity. Philosopher Peter Singer refected this concern in his book, Animal Liberation. In it he argued that animals could sufer just as much as humans and therefore their interests were worthy of equal consideration. He argued humans were guilty of species prejudice. These ideas inspired the nascent animal rights movement. 1 975


there was a growing 
unease about how animals 
were treated in captivity.
   Philosopher Peter Singer 
refected this concern in his 
book, Animal Liberation. In 
it he argued that animals 
could sufer just as much as 
humans and therefore their 
interests were worthy of 
equal consideration. He 
argued humans were guilty 
of species prejudice. These 
ideas inspired the nascent 
animal rights movement. 1 975

Слайд 22
British zoo laws introduced for animal welfare The

Zoo Licensing Act 1981 set standards for animal enclosures in Britain. It also required zoos to focus on conservation and education. Zoos began to breed animals in captivity rather than taking them from the wild. Soon afterwards animal rights charity Zoo Check was set up to help protect the welfare of captive animals. 1 981

Zoo Licensing Act 
1981 set standards for 
animal enclosures in 
Britain.
   It also required zoos to 
focus on conservation 
and education. Zoos 
began to breed animals 
in captivity rather than 
taking them from the 
wild. Soon afterwards 
animal rights charity Zoo 
Check was set up to help 
protect the welfare of 
captive animals. 1 981

Слайд 23
“ Zoos must… provide each animal with an environment well adapted

to meet the... needs of the species to which it belongs. ” The Zoo Licensing Act, 1981

to meet the... needs of the 
species to which it belongs. ”
                            The Zoo Licensing Act, 1981

Слайд 24
London Zoo almost closes In the early 1990s zoos

were in crisis with many sufering a significant drop in visitors. Surveys of the time suggested three quarters of Britons were opposed to keeping animals in captivity. At one point London Zoo was months from closure after government funding cuts. 1 991


were in crisis with many 
sufering a significant 
drop in visitors. 
   Surveys of the time 
suggested three 
quarters of Britons were 
opposed to keeping 
animals in captivity. At 
one point London Zoo 
was months from closure 
after government 
funding cuts. 1 991

Слайд 25
“ The zoo's financial problems have led to fears that it

will be forced to close within a few months. ” New Scientist, 1991


will be forced to close within a few months. ”
                                New Scientist, 1991

Слайд 26
Captive gazelles released back into the wild Zoos began

to shift towards better animal care and conservation in response to the crisis. One of the first signs was zoo involvement in breed and release programmes for endangered animals. London Zoo worked with the Saudi Wildlife Authority to release 100 sand gazelles in Saudi Arabia. It was the world's largest release of captive-bred mammals.1 995

to shift towards 
better animal care and 
conservation in response to 
the crisis. 
  
   One of the first signs was zoo 
involvement in breed and 
release programmes for 
endangered animals. London 
Zoo worked with the Saudi 
Wildlife Authority to release 
100 sand gazelles in Saudi 
Arabia. 
   It was the world's largest 
release of captive-bred 
mammals.1 995

Слайд 27
Bristol Zoo opens £3million enriched enclosure Bristol Zoo invested in

'Seal and Penguin Coasts', which included deep pools fitted with wave machines, beaches and islands. It marked a shift among big zoos towards building ‘showstopper enclosures’ from Spirit of the Jaguar at Chester to Gorilla Kingdom at London. 1 999


'Seal and Penguin 
Coasts', which included 
deep pools fitted with 
wave machines, beaches 
and islands.
  It marked a shift among 
big zoos towards 
building ‘showstopper 
enclosures’ from Spirit of 
the Jaguar at Chester to 
Gorilla Kingdom at 
London. 1 999

Слайд 28
Pioneering keyhole surgery saves giraffe Sapphire was the first

girafe to have keyhole surgery to mend a fractured jaw. The operation at Edinburgh Zoo saved her life. It marked a new willingness by progressive zoos to treat individual animals with the latest technology. At Bristol Zoo a gorilla called Romina underwent a ground-breaking cataract operation.2004


girafe to have keyhole 
surgery to mend a 
fractured jaw. The 
operation at Edinburgh 
Zoo saved her life.
   It marked a new 
willingness by 
progressive zoos to 
treat individual animals 
with the latest 
technology. At Bristol 
Zoo a gorilla called 
Romina underwent a 
ground-breaking 
cataract operation.2004

Слайд 29
Chester Zoo launches Borneo conservation project Progressive zoos

were now becoming home-bases for animal conservation work across the world. One example was at Chester Zoo, where staf built bridges linking up pockets of orangutan habitat in Borneo. Orangutan populations had become increasingly isolated from one another as their habitat was threatened by palm oil plantations, roads and villages. Zoos were now as committed to animals in the wild as those in their care.2011

were now 
becoming home-bases for 
animal conservation work 
across the world. 
   One example was at Chester 
Zoo, where staf built bridges 
linking up pockets of 
orangutan habitat in Borneo. 
   Orangutan populations had 
become increasingly isolated 
from one another as their 
habitat was threatened by 
palm oil plantations, roads 
and villages. Zoos were now 
as committed to animals in 
the wild as those in their 
care.2011

Слайд 30
“ If you want to save jaguars and hummingbirds the only

way to do so is to save the places where they live. ” David Attenborough, 2012

way to do so is to save the places where they 
live. ”
                                   David Attenborough, 2012

Слайд 31
to be continued Today

Слайд 32
Thank you for your attention!

Чтобы скачать презентацию - поделитесь ей с друзьями с помощью социальных кнопок.