The Two Sides in the Civil War

Содержание

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Some Russians refused to support either the REDS or the WHITES

In the

Some Russians refused to support either the REDS or the WHITES In
Ukraine, the courageous peasant leader, Nestor Makhno fought against the REDS and the WHITES. He wanted the peasants to be able to run their own lives. Eventually he had to flee overseas and went to live in France.

www.anarchy movement.co

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In charge of the Red Army

In charge of the White Army

Leon

In charge of the Red Army In charge of the White Army
Trotsky

Admiral Kolchak

General Yudenitch

General Deniken

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The Civil War :Advantages and Disadvantages

Controlled the main industries

Controlled the railways

Red army

The Civil War :Advantages and Disadvantages Controlled the main industries Controlled the
was under unified control of Trotsky and followed Bolshevik ideas

Communication among the Reds was relatively easy

Did not control any of the main industries

Only controlled a section of the trans-Siberian railway

White army disunited under several different leaders with different aims and ideas

Communication among the Whites was very difficult

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The Whites had assistance from the Allies who sent troops to help

USA

FRANCE

JAPAN

UK

The Whites had assistance from the Allies who sent troops to help USA FRANCE JAPAN UK

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Why did the Allies intervene on the side of the Whites?

To prevent

Why did the Allies intervene on the side of the Whites? To
supplies that they had sent to Russia from falling into German hands.

To help the Whites to continue the war against Germany

To try to prevent the Bolsheviks from winning the Civil War and spreading Communism

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The Fate of the Royal Family

The Tsar and his family were taken

The Fate of the Royal Family The Tsar and his family were
captive by the Bolsheviks and moved to Ekaterinburg under house arrest

By July 1918, Admiral Kolchak and his army were close to Ekaterinburg. They would soon be in a position to rescue the Tsar

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The Bolsheviks decided to kill the Tsar and all of the royal

The Bolsheviks decided to kill the Tsar and all of the royal
family. Tsar = symbol of old empire = reason to unite the Whites.

“We decided it here. Vladimir Ilyich (Lenin) believed that we shouldn’t leave the Whites a live banner to rally round”
(Sverdlov. Secretary of the Communist Party talking to Trotsky in 1918

The Tsar and his family were killed by members of the local CHEKA but the order seems to have been given by LENIN

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Reasons for the Bolshevik victory

Reasons for the Whites’ defeat

Trotsky creates efficient and

Reasons for the Bolshevik victory Reasons for the Whites’ defeat Trotsky creates

well organised Red army
Reds united behind Bolshevik
Ideas
Reds have strategic advantages
(industrial cities and railways)
Communication was easier in the Red controlled area
Allied support for Whites allows the Reds to be seen as ‘patriots’

Poor leadership and lack of organisation in the White army
Whites were divided and disunited and were associated with the Tsarist government which was hated by the vast majority of Russians.
Whites controlled few industries and only a small section of railway
Communication was difficult in the huge White controlled area
The Whites seen as unpatriotic because of Allied support for them.

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The Policy of War Communism.

During the Civil War, Lenin introduced the policy

The Policy of War Communism. During the Civil War, Lenin introduced the
of War Communism in Russia

There were two reasons for this policy:

War Communism

Wartime control of the economy

Introduction of Communist ideas into Russia

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Nationalisation of
Industries

Private Trade forbidden

WAR COMMUNISM

Rationing introduced

Transport taken over
by the Government

Labour

Nationalisation of Industries Private Trade forbidden WAR COMMUNISM Rationing introduced Transport taken
controlled
by the Government

Food requisitioned
from the peasants

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The Failure of War Communism

The Policy of War Communism failed to improve

The Failure of War Communism The Policy of War Communism failed to
the Russian economy.

During the period of War Communism, the production of grain declined and only recovered after 1923

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The fall in Grain production led to food shortages and starvation

Scenes like

The fall in Grain production led to food shortages and starvation Scenes
this were common in many Russian villages during the civil war

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During the period of War Communism, industrial production also declined.

Coal

Oil

Steel

Bricks

From 29m

During the period of War Communism, industrial production also declined. Coal Oil
to 9m tons

From 9.3m to 3.8m tons

From 4.3m to 0.2 m tons

From 2.1m to 0.1m tons

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The Kronstadt Rebellion

The policy of War Communism became very unpopular

In March 1921

The Kronstadt Rebellion The policy of War Communism became very unpopular In
there was a rebellion against Lenin by the sailors of the Kronstadt Naval base near St Petersburg

Troubles ? Kronstadt sailors active supporters of revolution.
Many participated in October revolution

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Demands of the Kronstadt Sailors
Elections to the Soviets by secret ballot
Freedom of

Demands of the Kronstadt Sailors Elections to the Soviets by secret ballot
speech
Freedom for Trade Unions
Release of all political prisoners
End to requisitioning of grain from
the peasants

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The Kronstadt Naval Base is attacked by the Red army over the

The Kronstadt Naval Base is attacked by the Red army over the
frozen ice

Although Lenin crushed the rebellion, he realised that he would have to change the policy of War Communism or risk being overthrown.

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The New Economic Policy (NEP)

Lenin decided that there was so much opposition

The New Economic Policy (NEP) Lenin decided that there was so much
to the policy of war communism that it had to be changed.

He wanted the change to be temporary: he would re-introduce communism when the time was right.

In 1921, he decided to replace War Communism with…… the New Economic Policy (NEP)

We’ll take one step back, but later make two ahead

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The NEW Economic Policy (NEP)

The New Economic Policy helped Russian agriculture and

The NEW Economic Policy (NEP) The New Economic Policy helped Russian agriculture
industry to gradually improve.

Grain Production increased after NEP was introduced

Iron Production increased after NEP was introduced

NEP

Coal and Oil production also increased as a result of NEP

Railway transport was also improved

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The success of the NEP

The success of the NEP helped to

The success of the NEP The success of the NEP helped to
keep Lenin and the Bolsheviks in Power.

The Peasants supported the end of grain requisitioning and began to grow more grain and sell the surplus. More food was now available in the towns and cities.

Private businessmen and traders were happy with their right to set up their own shops and businesses

The workers in the industrial towns and cities supported NEP because it helped to increase the supply of food and also helped to increase the number of jobs available in industry